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摄影 收藏中的收藏

发布: 2010-9-06 08:02 |  作者: admin  | 来源: 收藏投资导刊

Robert-Frank_Trolley-New-Orleans_1955

  20世纪上半叶,摄影以自身外显的生命力,说服公众相信它与油画、雕塑等其它艺术媒介一样,是见证人类精神生活的文化载体,只不过它是艺术殿堂的后来者。摄影艺术的地位一经确认,它的艺术价值随之确立,围绕它的市场化经营体系也迅速成形。

  1969年,李·威特金(Lee Witkin)在纽约开设的威特金画廊成为第一家专门经营摄影艺术的商业画廊,从而打破了这一新兴艺术产业领域的现实坚冰。虽然那时纽约现代艺术博物馆已经开始收藏阿尔弗雷德·斯蒂格利茨(Alfred Stieglitz)、爱德华·斯泰肯(Edward Steichen)等著名摄影师的作品,大部分当代摄影家依旧挣扎在艺术世界的边缘线上,他们必须通过专业摄影画廊将他们带入艺术资本循环的主流链条上,年轻摄影师的作品借助画廊举办的展览进入收藏家的视野。然而,真正标志摄影艺术成为投资级收藏对象的开端则是1976年。苏富比首次举办摄影专场拍卖,这一事件宣告摄影艺术市场已经成熟完备,无论是经典摄影还是当代摄影,都已针对各自特性发展出了自成体系的商业规则,稳定了摄影艺术市场的基本秩序,保证其艺术价值评判的公正。摄影最终获得“收藏中的收藏”这一美誉。

  21世纪,摄影艺术在国外的地位日益稳固,不仅依靠鉴赏家的评论,而且摄影的价格已经堪与著名画作和雕塑作品相媲美。以爱德华·韦斯顿(Edward Weston)为例,其1925年拍摄的裸体作品于2008年拍出160万美元的高价,普通民众只有去博物馆才能观看到这位摄影师的作品。

  诸如韦斯顿这些摄影师的作品构成了摄影艺术价格金字塔的顶端,更多的摄影作品则分别处于金字塔顶部以下的其它各层。诸多具体因素左右着每张照片的价值,即使作者是鼎鼎有名的大摄影家,也不一定意味该作品的价格一定会高。用来印制图像的相纸对光线、热度和湿度极度敏感,因此可能导致一幅韦斯顿作品保存不善,因此,这件作品可能以低于1万美元的价格起拍。

  决定摄影作品价格的因素众多,再以韦斯顿的作品为例:他最昂贵的摄影作品多以女人体、海贝或胡椒为题材,他在暗房亲手印制这些作品,然后亲自装裱、签名。1927年,他亲身参与印制的《鹦鹉螺壳》,于2007年在苏富比以110万美元拍出。20世纪30年代晚期,韦斯顿罹患帕金森综合症,逐渐丧失拍摄和洗印负片的能力,由其子布瑞特代他完成暗房处理工作,在韦斯顿同意和指导下,制作了约5000张最著名作品的复制品。由布瑞特印制的《鹦鹉螺壳》每张可售10万美元。韦斯顿去世后,他另一个儿子科尔接手父亲的底片翻制工作,而由科尔印制的《鹦鹉螺壳》只能标价为1万美元左右。

  韦斯顿作品的后代管理者察觉,布瑞特和科尔印制的同一件作品的品质相差甚远,因为布瑞特所使用的相纸与其父的相同,而科尔所用的印制材料则完全不同,不仅含银量低,并且无法产生同样强烈的色调。韦斯顿和布瑞特印制的作品很难区分,虽然后者倾向于运用更多“色彩对比”来展示他自己的喜好。

  对于新一代摄影师而言,关于图像印制方面的细节不再对价格产生关键影响。Photoshop等图像处理软件瞬间就可以完成老一辈摄影师花费数日或者更长时间的心血才能实现的细节处理。辛迪·舍曼(Cindy Sherman)、威廉姆·艾格斯顿(William Eggleston)都是战后名声显赫的摄影师,但他们都不亲自参与作品印制,不过这丝毫不会影响其作品的价格。因为摄影艺术藏家收藏的是图像本身,而非古老且不精确的暗房技巧。

  当代摄影师一般更在意市场规律,自觉限制每版作品的数量,期望以稀缺性提升价格。与此相对,早期的摄影师们只要有市场需求就会无限量加印复制,其中安塞尔·亚当斯(Ansel Adams)就曾将1941年拍摄的《新墨西哥赫尔南德兹的月出》这件作品翻印1000张。作品的流通数量对价格产生负面影响,同样的情况可参考罗伯特·弗兰克(Robert Frank)自行翻制的作品《美国人》,以及沃尔克·埃文斯(Walker Evans)授权美国国会图书馆定期翻制的若干底片,后者的售价仅仅几十美元。

  每一幅影像作品背后都有关于它的具体信息,或有关技术,或有关艺术史,或有关艺术家的职业经历,或有关市场表现,或有关时代背景和语境,而摄影艺术的收藏者首先要去探索这方方面面的知识地图,由此真正找到自己热爱并追随的藏品,既可丰富自己的精神生活,也能让物质财富保值,何乐而不为呢?

    编译 / 戴伟平

TAG: 摄影收藏
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