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南腔北调:摄影,不只是一个媒介

发布: 2012-5-18 09:24 |  作者: 陈建中  | 来源: 中国摄影

美国人汤姆 · 理普雷(Tom Ripley)在德国生活得不错,他住在一幢远离汉堡市中心的老别墅里。纽约有一个生活落魄但执著于画画的仿画师常年给他提供名家仿制品。汤姆把那些仿画从美洲倒腾到欧洲,装裱后送往拍卖行,然后雇人在每场拍卖会不断加价,从中获利。他在汉堡有一个长期合作的裱画师强纳申 · 其默曼(Jonathan Zimmerman),其默曼有时可以依据自己的专业经验看出画作的真伪。一次拍卖会上,其默曼发现一张汤姆让他装裱的画卖价飙升得有点离谱,于是他跟不知底细不断跟价的朋友说,这画里的蓝色好像和原画家的常用色不太一致。但是他的朋友却满不在乎,说:反正这是卖给德克萨斯的暴发户们的。也就是这次提醒,其默曼给自己引来了一场无法掌控的杀身之旅。

这是德国导演维姆 · 文德斯(Wim Wenders)1977年执导的新黑色电影《美国朋友》(The American Friend)的故事开场。谋杀和追逃便在艺术品的真伪和逐利中展开。

马丁·帕尔(Martin Parr)在《光圈》(Aperture)2011年秋季号介绍拉脱维亚摄影师里莫达斯·维克丝拉迪斯(Rimaldas Viksraitis)时写道,自己与维克丝拉迪斯的结识是通过伦敦一个专做俄罗斯和东欧艺术家的经纪人的介绍,2009年当阿尔勒摄影节的发现奖要他推荐摄影师时,帕尔想到了自己在1986年作为新人时的同样经历,他把维克丝拉迪斯推荐给了阿尔勒。从来没有向外人展示过自己作品的维克丝拉迪斯获得了大奖,将两万五千欧元现钞收入囊中。事后帕尔去维克丝拉迪斯家里作客,后者告诉帕尔,他很快就要搬新家了,而新家就是阿尔勒奖金的成果。

马丁·帕尔并不完全是买那个艺术经纪人的面子才推荐维克丝拉迪斯的。维克丝拉迪斯的照片拍摄的是一个鲜为外人知晓的拉脱维亚乡野小镇生活,作品的确有他的独到视角。但没有帕尔的大名和那个经理人的引介,维克丝拉迪斯恐怕永远也不会走出他那个拉脱维亚的小镇,他的家可能永远也只是那个没有抽水马桶的简陋小屋。

摄影走到今天,其含义已经远远超出当初那个“用光绘画”的浪漫诗意的定义范畴。摄影,已经从早年以探寻新的视觉形式来再现人类精神和自然美景的美学情怀转变成了社会结构中一个合理存在的意识形态机构(ideological institution)。这个意识形态机构的运作由影像创制、影像管理和影像推广互动结合起来的有机结合分层体来精确完成。每一个分层体又由诸多个体实现机制完成相应的作业。摄影作为一个意识形态的机构体依附于社会政治文化庞大运行机制上,不仅关照着现实的社会文化生态,而且本身也成为这个生态中的一个有机体,摄影既是一个社会媒介也是一个社会政治经济实体,正如马修 · 麦克卢汉(Marshall McLuhan)说的:“媒介即信息”(Medium is a message)。

据预计,2012年全世界将产生大约3700亿张照片,如果按此速度增长,10年以后,地球上将会有多少视觉瞬间被凝固记录下来?又有多少视觉影像在我们的不知不觉中留存起来?摄影已不再只是摄影者的行为,那些无处不在的监视系统、环绕地球运转着的卫星摄像头、医院里各种检查仪器的探头无时无刻记录和储存着我们身体内外的每一个细小活动。生活在某个社会意识形态里的个体摄影师和在同一个社会体系里的机器,无论是有意识还是无意识,都在给这个社会体系的合理存在提供维护保障的参照数据。这些数据既可能是批判性的,也可能是赞美性的,但实质都是既为了维护一个合理的社会政治经济机制,又保障摄影这个意识形态机构能够在那个机制下生存下去。

为了保障影像创制体系能够运行,于是影像的管理和推介机构也配合着运作起来。为了使那3700亿张照片不至沦为一堆无序的废物,所有生成的影像只要不像堕胎那样被遗弃,都会被分门别类投送到相应的管理体系,再由管理体系推介到与其挂钩的机构或者人物,将影像作为一种社会文化的产品投入到整个社会的经济运作体系中,以量化的形式定义质化影像的社会价值。这样,摄影不就像是一个商品体系了吗?其实摄影作为社会政治经济有机体的价值远大于它作为商品体的价值。因为没有这个有机体,也就没有我这里的文字了,也就没有那些众多以摄影为主打的印刷品了,也就没有那些为了“德味”和“日味”争论不休的“粉丝”们了,也就没有那些不计成本甚至生命去成就那些极品的理想主义者们了。

摄影的商品化,更准确地说应该是摄影的社会意识形态体制化,商品只不过是社会意识形态的一种物化表征。当我们质疑摄影到底是什么,或者我们为什么摄影时,其实也是在质疑我们的社会形态和在这个形态中生存的价值。所有的摄影技术技巧和过程都只不过是为证实摄影这个社会意识形态机构在社会政治经济体系中存在的合理性所做的劳动。

以前我在旅行中很喜欢去看博物馆或者画廊,觉得那都是人类艺术文化中精选出来的杰作,足以概观人类的文明。现在我不再仰慕性地踏足那些展示被某种文化意识形态特意精选出来的“圣殿”,我更喜欢倘佯在旅途中的街头巷尾,去感受那些还没有被纳入某个机构形态中的自然艺术生态。摄影其实也是一座围城。不知道有多少城内的人想出来,但肯定的是:城外想进去的人太多了。

无论进城还是出城,既然摄影这个无拘无束的媒介活生生地衍生出了另外一套循规蹈矩的摄影文化意识形态机构,那么,别无选择,只有把这个机构运做好了,才能让那个媒介活色生香。

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qgkp886 (2018-7-29 19:22:36)
https://greasyfork.org/zh-CN/users/195163
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qgkp886 (2018-7-28 17:05:56)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-22 19:23:52)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-21 01:42:23)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-04 13:36:12)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-01 08:11:37)
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shanghaikp (2018-7-01 03:32:32)
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shanghaikp (2018-6-28 18:36:38)
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