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中国新世纪的影像

发布: 2009-11-18 11:27 |  作者: admin 

今天的影像艺术虽然是借用了摄影这样的技术手段和媒材,但它已经不同于传统的摄影。影像艺术随着创作实践的开展,越来越与传统摄影拉开了距离,如何区别于摄影,也成为当代影像需要继续探索和回应的实践课题和理论课题。当代影像更广泛地指那些运用了摄影的呈现方式、输出打印等一系列形式的艺术,是1990年代的观念摄影、先锋摄影、新摄影、超现实摄影等诸多概念的进一步扩展。“当代影像”这个概念不像“当代艺术”存在的争议那样大,它尽管和传统摄影采用了一样的表现形式,但在视觉内涵、观念意义上有明显区别,随着“当代影像”作为概念的流行和扩展,也会逐渐影响到摄影概念的认识和定义。为了在实践中不至于与一般的摄影相混淆,“当代影像”应特指那些具有自觉的创作观念、将观念赋予具体形象、强调观念的先锋性、并以摄影媒介呈现的作品,虽然也可以放在大的摄影范畴中,但属于一种非纪实、非“艺术摄影”的观念艺术。在西方的著述中,是用“作为艺术的摄影”(photography as art)来指称这些“当代影像”,很显然,“艺术”在这里指向了特殊的观念性表达,而不是那些“艺术性的摄影”,如美丽的风光、风景摄影等(除非予以观念化处理)。“当代影像”作为特指,首先应该明确它的涵义,应该与自觉的观念性和当代性结合起来,如果不是这样,“当代影像”最后会变得像一只筐,什么都要装进去。“当代艺术”这个多重歧义的术语引起的争论就是这样,但是如果从历史脉络强调它的当代性与观念性这两个维度,就不至于扯不清,非要从语言的语义层层分解,证明一切今天创作的都是“当代艺术”就等于消解了这个概念指向的一种艺术判断。

因此,谈到中国的当代影像首先不是从摄影的线索开始的,而是从中国的当代艺术实践入手的。正是因为中国的当代艺术的逐渐发展,才推动了影像媒介作为一种艺术手段的发展,才有了原有的摄影的一支新脉络。即便如此,当代影像仍然存在诸多的争议,还没有真正地被纳入到作为媒介的摄影这个整体框架中,传统的摄影人士仍然视这些当代影像为不伦不类的东西,仍然用摄影性的技术标准来衡量这些当代影像作品,仅仅是因为当代艺术的井喷,人们不得不对多元化、多观念的艺术表示容忍而已。但至少说,作为观念性的当代影像已经形成巍然大观,发展的潜力和动力愈加兴盛。

今天的中国当代影像延续了上个世纪90年代的观念影像实践,由原来的个别现象扩大到现在的普遍形势,从事当代影像的艺术家越来越多,之前发展积累的一些影像艺术成果也开始被消化、被研究,逐渐被吸纳入到当代的整个艺术史写作中,甚至构成了当代艺术史写作中最为丰富多彩的一页。中国的这些影像艺术家实际上是与国际的观念影像转型同步的,这是一种恢复“摄影的眼睛如何看世界的特殊功能”的努力。摄影的产生即是为了满足艺术家精确表达世界的需要,在发展过程中不断有大量的视觉艺术家介入到摄影媒介创作中,使得摄影的表现能力越来越丰富,最后摄影独立地成为一种艺术表现门类,但同时由于摄影的普遍和新闻纪实、真实记录的强化,作为艺术的摄影的特殊性受到忽略。从历史看,摄影的眼睛具有探索观念表达力的巨大优势,具有很强的主观表现可能性。20世纪30年代的法国超现实主义理论家安德烈·布勒东曾经写道:“摄影的发明已经给予绘画乃至诗歌的旧的表现方式以致命一击,其中,兴起于19世纪末的自动书写成为真正的思想的摄影。”他前瞻性地指出了自动书写是观念的自觉性的反映的特点,预见到了观念摄影的特别力量。到了80年代,罗宾斯指出“摄影照片已不是呈现一种现实的描绘,而现在是指某种创造出来的东西,展示给我们被感觉的东西,而不并必然是被看的东西。”[①]它意味着一个时代对摄影影像的重新认识,显然是强调了观念性的存在对于当代影像艺术的重要性。

中国的当代影像在今天有如此的成绩,首先是这种大的当代艺术格局的形成,释放了对于影像媒介的束缚,艺术家应用影像手段不是为了摄影而摄影,而是作为看待世界与现实认识观念的一种视觉语言体系,这成为世界的一种趋势。同样,中国的本土影像艺术实践也契合了时代的变化和发展,也是自身艺术不断突破界限、不断打破陈规、主要是勇于将艺术表达与现实世界的问题结合起来。当代的艺术世界是一个突破古典保守主义痼疾、不甘于现代主义陈规、而介入现实的积极领域,就像诗人表达对世界的态度时,绝不是众声喧哗,而一定是一种独语。中国的影像艺术也正是这样一种状态,提供了消解社会常态的观念的机会,它们所挑战的不仅仅是自我形象,更重要的是面对这个时空完全错位的时代,作为观念表达的中国当代影像艺术就是力图回应这些文化心理冲击、意识形态钳制、商业消费悖论和社会结构紊乱带来的问题。众多影像艺术家的实践努力一直在确证着中国的历史变革和意识观念的重新塑造,它们体现了多种的视觉形式,背后是各种思想观念的交锋。它们是否具有感染力、是否具有视觉文化研究的深度、是否具有文化历史的社会心理迹象,正是中国今天的当代影像艺术家所追求的,也是作为当代艺术家的这个群体所孜孜以求的。

今天的艺术之丰富多样,超出想象,也极度地引起思维不适应和各种反应,因为是这样,所以中国的当代影像才愈加突出而直指视觉的冲突。视觉冲突的背后就是艺术观念的冲突,也正是道不同不相谋的冲突,当代艺术与当代影像并不是莺歌燕舞、你好我好的矫情艺术。这是判断当代影像的很重要的一个特质,当代艺术与当代影像试图探索的永远是这种思想观念的力量,如果说中国的、乃至世界的当代艺术还有那么一点生机,就是因为有观念影像、装置、行为等一类艺术形式的存在和不断出场才如此的。

中国在新世纪的当代影像能否保持其曾经有锋芒和力度,是当前要关注的,如何继续保持当代影像的活力不能限于图片本身的雕凿上,而是在图片之外如何构筑一个影像的空间,也是当代观念影像的着力点。如果这一点没有做到,作为呈现方式的影像就可能缺乏视觉差异和观念力量。在面对已经很多的社会景观、个人超现实、心理虚拟、暴力伤害、性别身份等等这些观念问题时,是否能够继续寻找到细微的观念差异和表现,是目前的影像艺术要解决的问题,也是困扰新的艺术家的问题。另外,影像语言如何更具有自身特征也成为中国影像艺术家关注的重点,从行为到摆拍、从挪用到解构、从手工到数码,都突出了影像艺术对原有摄影的冲击,这也是传统纪实摄影与当代观念影像的分野所在。可以说,新世纪的影像艺术家还将带来视觉的刷新和观念的震荡,今天的中国落入后现代的消费社会之后,这一切不是不需要,而是更急迫。

注释:

[①] 见Photography: A Critical Introduction, third edition, edited by Liz Wells, Routledge, p.279.

TAG: 当代艺术 photography as art 观念摄影
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qgkp886 (2018-7-30 15:05:55)
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