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属于摄影的,依旧属于摄影

发布: 2010-3-31 14:35 |  作者: 黄一凯 


Alabama, 1963.

In Birmingham, anti-segregation demonstrators lie on the sidewalk to protect themselves from firemen with high PRESSURE water hoses. One disgusted fireman said later, "We're supposed to fight fires, not people."

 

查尔斯•摩尔(Charles Moore)最初只是一位新闻摄影师(news photographer),然后变成了一位报道摄影记者(photojournalist),最后作为一名视觉记者(visual journalist)与世长辞。他并没有变,变的是科技,是头衔,是围绕这个行业的一切。

查尔斯•摩尔最初是他的故乡阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利市一家当地小报的记者,随后因为给生活杂志拍摄作品而混出点样子,但让他名噪一时的还是其游走南方拍摄的那些民权运动照片,记录着当年黑与白、对与错之间的抵抗与碰撞。

摩尔永远是端着相机冲在最前面的人,热衷于广角镜头的他永远是离骚乱场面最近的摄影师,而一旦开始按快门,他还会逼得更近。

在那个电视起步还没有多久,画报杂志一枝独秀的年代,生活杂志花了13页来刊登摩尔、弗利浦•舒尔克(Flip Schulke)等人1962年密西西比大学骚乱中拍摄的照片,次年又花了11页刊登发生在伯明翰的警犬与水龙驱散事件。

人权战场上传回的那些动荡照片与紧随其后的赫斯特•法埃斯(Horst Faas)、艾迪•亚当斯(Eddie Adams)、黄功吾(Nick Ut)等人拍摄的越南战场的惨景,创造了报道摄影的黄金年代。

今天,每个人只要拿着一部手机都可以管自己叫做摄影师或者摄像师,流媒体正在互联网上蔓延。但报道摄影是否正在因为影像的迅速泛滥而丧失了自己的价值或影响力?

作为MSNBC.com的多媒体总监,Stokes Young每天需要在屏幕上浏览大量的影像和视频。他随口就能说出一长串摄影师以及他们那些引起巨大反响的作品。

经济危机对于岌岌可危的印刷媒体而言无异于釜底抽薪,这使得他们无力供养大量的摄影师,对于地方媒体来说失态更为严峻,但是"那些顶尖的报道摄影作品依旧表现出惊人的品质",他说。

而非专业人士拍摄的大量影像与视频充斥着地方小报的版面,编辑们反而比以前更加忙碌,除了整理人们上传的地震、干旱、群体事件等照片,还要盯着东家的长李家的短,然后根据真理部的指示判断这些照片是不是都能刊发。

"在目前这种嘈杂的媒体环境中,无论什么样的影像都很难在国家或世界范围内引起重大注意,而严肃的报道摄影作品在其中的比重也正在减少",Young如是说。另外他还补充到,"非专业人士拍摄的照片走到聚光灯下的可能性正在增加"。

去年妮达•艾嘉•索尔坦(Neda Agha Soltan)在德黑兰的一次反政府示威游行中不幸中弹身亡,整个过程被手机拍摄了下来并且迅速通过互联网传播。她血淋淋的面部特写镜头被截图并广为流传。随着视频质量的不断提高,截图足以供新闻报道之用。

很多专业摄影师不免担心,纪实摄影黄金年代中流传的那些准则会被慢慢遗忘。在过去几十年时间里摄影师们曾聚集在摩尔、亚当斯、黄功吾等人身边倾听他们的言传身教,而这种方式正在被网络培训班(Webinars)所取代。

尽管如此,很多强调纪实摄影的新兴媒体网站依旧坚持着查尔斯•摩尔的社会责任感。"记录社会的不公平现象是我们的天职",同时也是推动纪实摄影前进的动力,MediaStorm.org的创办人Brian Storm说道。他们在今年刚刚成为第一个获得阿尔佛雷德•杜邦•哥伦比亚大学新闻奖(Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Awards)的网络机构。

在Brian Storm布鲁克林办公室的墙上,悬挂着一幅11X14英寸的黑白照片,伯明翰的一个消防队员正用水龙驱散一名黑人女子和两名黑人男子。每当他感到迷茫,总会抬起头看看这幅照片,这幅查尔斯•摩尔拍摄的照片。

TAG: 纪实摄影 评论 Charles Moore
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